I'm amazed at the variation of rice flour alone...
The following information is gleaned from various pages of Just One Cookbook:
Joshinko / 上新粉 / rice flour
Made from short grain rice. Produces a chewy and doughy texture. Used for dango.
Shiratamako / 白玉粉 / glutinous rice flour or sweet rice flour
Made from mochigome (glutinous rice). This is the one that's used for most mochi since the texture is elastic and bouncy. Also used for kimchi paste!
Mochiko / もち粉
You'd think the one with mochi in its name would be the one you use to make mochi, ha. Generally not used to make mochi, but this is used to make 汤圆.
Thankfully the ones that are used have kanji for their names so it was easy to find on taobao
Kinako / きな粉 / roasted soybean flour
Warabi / わらび / bracken starch
Usually not sold as 100% warabi, can substitute with sweet potato starch or tapioca starch instead for mochi.
Kudzu or kudzu / 葛粉
Not a flour but lots of info on agar-agar at Molecular Recipe (gonna have to give this site a thorough read through later)